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IJIRIET Internatioanl Journal In Research In Engineering and Technology,Volume 2,Issue,7,November 2104


International Journal In Research In engineering And Technology

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

OPERATING SYSTEMS

ABHISHEK RAO – 16510

IT DEPARTMENT
DRONACHARYA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

MD GUFRAN – 16533

IT DEPARTMENT
DRONACHARYA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

 

 

 


ABSTRACT

Operating system is a kind of system software which acts as the interface between the

computer and its user. It is a user-friendly platform that deals with the tasks according to the use 's e ui e e ts. The ope ati g syste is a esse tial co po e t of the system software in

a computer system. Application programs usually require an operating system to function. Operating systems can be found on almost any device that contains a computer—from cellular phones and video game consoles to supercomputers and web servers. It helps to perform the various operations and give the results in a fraction of time.

Keywords: - Types of OS, Special Features of Different OS, History.
IJIRIET Internatioanl Journal In Research In Engineering and Technology,Volume 2,Issue,7,November 2104

 

 

I. Introduction

An operating system is the software component of a computer system that is responsible for the management and coordination of activities and the sharing of the resources of the computer. The OS acts as a host for application programs that are run on the machine. As a host, one of the purposes of an OS is to handle the details of the operation of the hardware. This relieves application programs from having to manage these details and makes it easier to write applications. Almost all computers use an OS of some type. With the help of operating systems, every task can be handle or done at the fingertips. The Operating System is very fast in processing speed and can proceed our input to desired and correct output in a couple of seconds. There are many types of Operating system available which have their own working and specifications. It is Graphics User Interface system which is very attractive and easy to use. In our day to day life, those Operating Systems are most used which are most user-friendly. Operating System gets input from user through input devices and converts this input instructions into machine language and finally give outputs on output devices.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig.1

Every part of a system like input device (Mouse,Keyboard), output device(Printer,monitor), Application etc…. a e co ected th ough the Ope atio syste . So ow we ca say that this is called as the hea t a d
soul of a system.

 

II. TYPES OF OPERATING SYSTEMS

A). Real-time Operating System.

An operating system must have a known maximum time for each of the critical operations that it performs. Some of these operations include OS calls and interrupt handling. Operating systems that can absolutely guarantee a maximum time for these operations are commonly referred to as "hard real-time", while operating systems that can only guarantee a maximum most of the time are referred to as "soft real-time". These strict categories have limited usefulness - each RTOS solution demonstrates unique performance characteristics and the user should carefully investigate these characteristics. The main point is that, if programmed correctly, an RTOS can guarantee that a program will run with very consistent timing. Real-time operating systems do this by providing programmers with a high degree of control over how tasks are prioritized, and typically also allow checking to make sure that important deadlines are met.

B). Multi-user Operating System.

A multi-user operating system is a computer operating system that allows multiple users on different computers or terminals to access a single system with one OS on it. These programs are often quite complicated and must be able to properly manage the necessary tasks required by the different users connected to it. The users will typically be at terminals or computers that give them access to the system through a network, as well as other machines on the system such as printers. A multi-user operating system differs from a single-user system on a network in that each user is accessing the same OS at different
IJIRIET Internatioanl Journal In Research In Engineering and Technology,Volume 2,Issue,7,November 2104


machines. On a system using a multi-user operating system this can be even more important, since multiple people require the system to be functioning properly simultaneously. This type of system is often used on mainframes and similar machines, and if the system fails it can affect dozens or even hundreds of people.

C). Time Sharing Operating System.

The time sharing systems were developed to provide an interactive use of the computer system. A time shared system uses CPU scheduling and multiprogramming to provide each user with a small portion of a time-shared computer. It allows many users to share the computer resources simultaneously. As the system switches rapidly from one user to the other, a short time slot is given to each user for their executions. The OS allocates a set of time to each user. When this time is expired, it passes control to the next user on the system. The time allowed is extremely small and the users are given the impression that they each have their own CPU and they are the sole owner of the CPU. This short period of time during that a user gets attention of the CPU

D).Distributed Operating System

Distributed systems use multiple central processors to serve multiple real time application and multiple users. Data processing jobs are distributed among the processors accordingly to which one can perform each job most efficiently. The processors communicate with one another through various communication lines (such as high-speed buses or telephone lines). These are referred as loosely coupled systems or distributed systems. Processors in a distributed system may vary in size and function. These processors are

referred as sites, nodes, and computers and so on. With resource sharing facility user at one site may be able to use the resources available at another, that's disadvantage. If one site fails in a distributed system, the remaining sites can potentially continue operating,that's another disadvantage.

E).Single user-Single task.

That is a type of operating system which is not use these modern days. This is a type of OS in which only a

single person can do a single task at a time. The running of a single task at a time is the only reason that it is not popular these days because many nearly every operating system is multi-task. So, that's why person don't interest in this OS. These operating were used in the palm top but not used these days.

III. History link with Operating System.

Early computers were built to perform a series of single tasks, like a calculator. Basic operating system features were developed in the 1950s, such as resident monitor functions that could automatically run different programs in succession to speed up processing. Operating systems did not exist in their modern and more complex forms until the early 1960s. Hardware features were added, that enabled use of runtime libraries, interrupts, and parallel processing. When personal computers became popular in the 1980s, operating systems were made for them similar in concept to those used on larger computers.

In the 1940s, the earliest electronic digital systems had no operating systems. Electronic systems of this time were programmed on rows of mechanical switches or by jumper wires on plug boards. These were special-purpose systems that, for example, generated ballistics tables for the military or controlled the printing of payroll checks from data on punched paper cards. After programmable general purpose computers were invented, machine languages (consisting of strings of the binary digits 0 and 1 on punched paper tape) were introduced that sped up the programming process (Stern, 1981).

OS/360 was used on most IBM mainframe computers beginning in 1966, including computers utilized by the Apollo program.
IJIRIET Internatioanl Journal In Research In Engineering and Technology,Volume 2,Issue,7,November 2104

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig.2

In the early 1950s, a computer could execute only one program at a time. Each user had sole use of the computer for a limited period of time and would arrive at a scheduled time with program and data on punched paper cards and/or punched tape. The program would be loaded into the machine, and the machine would be set to work until the program completed or crashed.
Programs could generally be debugged via a front panel using toggle switches and panel lights.

IV. Special Features of Different OS

WINDOWS:

-    Can be expensive, especially compared to Linux, which is in most cases free. 

-    Easy to use, especially for new computer users, and plenty of help resources are available online. 

-    Although Microsoft Windows has made great improvements in reliability with recent versions, it still lags behind its competitors. 

-    It has a large library of available software, games and utilities, although many are expensive. 
-    Hardware manufacturers all make drivers and support for Windows OS. 

-    Openness to virus attacks is a major disadvantage. 

LINUX:

-    It is an open source OS, which in most cases is free. 

-    Inexperienced computer users may find it more difficult to get to grips with Linux. 

-    It is very reliable and rarely freezes. 

-    Fewer computer programs, games and utilities are available for Linux. 

-    Many programs are free or open source, even very complex ones. 

-    There are still some manufacturers that do not offer hardware support for Linux OS, although there are fewer every year. 

-    The open source nature of Linux allows more advanced users to customise the code as they wish. 

-    Fewer people use Linux, therefore it is more difficult to find someone fully familiar with it, although there are vast resources online. 

MAC  OS:

-    MAC computers are more expensive generally than PCs. 

-    MAC is a much more secure OS, and is far less open to viruses and malware. 

-    Stability is a major advantage - it very rarely crashes, loses data or freezes. 

-    Fewer computer programs and games are available for MACs. 

-    As most computer components of MACs are made by Apple, there are not many driver issues, unlike with PCs, which are made by many different manufacturers. 
IJIRIET Internatioanl Journal In Research In Engineering and Technology,Volume 2,Issue,7,November 2104

 

REFERENCES

o  www.google.com
o www.wikipedia.com o www.mrcep.com