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Biometric Images

A wide variety of systems require reliable personal recognition schemes to either confirm or determine the identity of an individual requesting their services. The purpose of such schemes is to ensure that the rendered services are accessed only by a legitimate user, and not anyone else. Examples of such applications include secure access to buildings, computer systems, laptops, cellular phones and ATMs. In the absence of robust personal recognition schemes, these systems are vulnerable to the wiles of an impostor. Biometric recognition, or simply biometrics, refers to the automatic recognition of individuals based on their physiological and/or behavioral characteristics. By using biometrics it is possible to confirm or establish an individual’s identity based on “who she is”, rather than by “what she possesses” (e.g., an ID card) or “what she remembers” (e.g., a password). In this paper, we give a brief overview of the field of biometrics and summarize some of its advantages, disadvantages, strengths, limitations, and related privacy concerns.
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Intel Microprocessors 8085 and 8086

Intel introduced the microprocessor in November 1971 with the advertisement, "Announcing a New Era in Integrated Electronics." The fulfillment of this prophecy has already occurred with the delivery of the 8008 in 1972, the 8080 in 1974, the 8085 in 1976, and the 8086 in 1978. During this time, throughput has improved 100-fold, the price of a CPU chip has declined from $300 to $3, and microcomputers have revolutionized design concepts in countless applications. They are now entering our homes and cars.
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Compiler Designing

Need of advancement in techniques of interpretation and run time compilation increases day by day to handle the complexities of daily life problems. In order to reduce the complexity of designing and building computers advancement in designing of compilers increases. All of these compilers are made to execute the simple commands very quickly. A program for a computer is built by combining these simple commands into a program in what is known as machine language. This is a most tedious and error prone process of development such kind of program so we have high level programming languages for this purpose but they do not work like machine language. Therefore to fill the different between them, we require a program interface known as compiler.
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Data Compression Algorithms and Comparison between Arithmetic and Huffman Encoding

Data compression is a process which reduces the size of data, by removing the excessive information. Shorter data size is suitable because it simply reduces the cost. The aim of data compression is a method to reduce redundancy in stored or communicated data, thus increasing effective data density. Data compression is an essential application in the area of file storage and distributed system because in distributed system data have to send from and to all system. So to increase speed and performance efficiency data compression is used. There are number of different data compression methodologies, which are used to compress different data formats like text, video, audio, image files. There are two forms of data compression “lossy” and “lossless”, in lossless data compression, the integrity of data is preserved. The compression techniques also include the most useful techniques which are the HUFFMAN ENCODING and the RUN-LENGTH ENCODING
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KERNEL OPERATING SYSTEM

The central module of an operating system (OS) is the Kernel. It is the part of the operating system that loads first, and it remains in main memory. It is necessary for the kernel to be very small while still providing all the essential services needed by other parts of the OS because it stays in the memory. To prevent kernel code from being overwritten by programs or other parts of the operating system it is loaded into a protected area of memory. The presence of an operating system kernel is not a necessity to run a computer. Directly loading and executing the programs on the "bare metal" machine is possible, provided that the program
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