PROGRESS REPORT 2 PROGRESS REPORT 2

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INTRODUCTION

"FRICE" is an acronym for Forms, Reports, Interfaces, Conversions and Enhancements. There are other acronyms for this categorization like RICEF, FRICE-W and RICEF-W (where W stands for workflows). It is a classification used in SAP ERP projects to categorize and inventorize the ABAP programs and objects that are created or customized in order to realize the solution.

The distribution of the FRICE and the number of FRICE usually gives a fair idea of the complexity and the size of customization and of the project. Usually, project managers would further classify them by complexity.

FRICE classification is not same as ABAP object type or program type. For e.g., an executable ABAP program (se38) can be classified as  "Report" or an "Enhancement" or an "Interface" depending on it's functionality.

FRICE/RICEF is general used in relation to the primary skill sets of an ABAPer.

FRICE Stands for :

  • F – Forms: Forms are SAPscript forms, SAPscript print programs, and SmartForms.
  • R – Reports: R refers report programming. Of course, firstly classical report programming, WRITE statement; then it means ALV programming with either ALV function modules or ABAP objects.
  • I – Interfaces: Interfaces are ALE / IDOC developments. Not only development, ABAP programming for IDOCs, also IDOC customization, management. I think it might refers EDI too
  • C – Conversion: Conversions means BDC programming, batch input function modules, BDCDATA structure, CALL TRANSACTION
  • E – Enhancements: Enhancements are user-exits and the object oriented model of user-exits that is BADIs

 

1.1 MOTIVATION OF THE PROJECT:

FRICE is a classification used in SAP ERP . The main motivation behind FRICE is  to categorize and inventorize the ABAP programs and objects that are created or customized in order to realize the solution.

The distribution of the FRICE and the number of FRICE usually gives a fair idea of the complexity and the size of customization and of the project. Usually, project managers would further classify them by complexity.

FRICE classification is not same as ABAP object type or program type. For e.g., an executable ABAP program (se38) can be classified as as "Report" or an "Enhancement" or an "Interface" depending on it's functionality.

Forms:

Forms are ABAP programs and objects that create readable, formatted and printable outputs that are often exchanged with partners (customers, vendors, banks, employees, benefit providers, governments etc.). The outputs can be printed or sent via fax or sent in an email as an attachment (pdf, otf, rtf, doc) or even simply displayed on the screen (and a user can choose to print, fax or email it).SAP provides ABAP workbench tools like SAP Script, Smart forms, Adobe interactive forms, OLE etc. to develop "Forms".Some examples of forms are Purchase Orders (MM), Sales Invoices (SD), Shipping Label (SD), Checks (AP), Customer account statements (AR), Employment letters (HR).

Reports:

Reports are ABAP programs that generates information (reports), usually in the form of lists from the SAP database. Mostly, reports are viewed online, on the screen. But often, they are also downloaded or sent as attachment in emails (usually spreadsheets or xls) or sent to the spool (and may be printed). Performance heavy reports (that uses lots of data or takes long time to run) and periodic reports are usually run as jobs in batch mode.

The ABAP workbench provides the ABAP Editor (se38) to create reports. ABAP List Viewer - ALV (a set of ABAP functions) is very popularly used in ABAP programs to create reports. The classical method, though, was to create reports with "WRITE" statements in the ABAP programs. SAP Query is another tool to generate reports. Certain SAP modules have specialized reporting tools like the Report Painter in FI. The QuickViewer is another tool for personalized reporting, that is created in the live system on a need basis.

Interfaces:

Interfaces are ABAP programs, functions and other objects that enable the transfer and exchange of data and information betweeen two or more systems. Usually, interface fetch data from the source system and send them to target systems (outbound) or update the target system with the data sent from the source system (inbound), without any user intervention. Online users may be involved for error processing or to trigger the interface (both voluntarily or involuntarily). In some cases, an interface may load data into the system provided by a user - probably as a file or a spreadsheet. In these cases, the data may be extracted from the source by the user manually or the user may generate the data on their own. However, if the data is interactively keyed into the system by the user, it should not be termed as an interface.

Interfaces can be developed as RFC enabled functions (for remote calls), IDOC processing function modules, ABAP programs that can process or generate files or can make RFC calls, or idoc generating ABAP programs/functions, ABAP programs or functions that perform BDC etc.

Conversions:

Conversions are programs that enable the transfer of data to the new system being implemented, from a previously live system. The source system (which was holding the data) may retire or co-exist after the conversion. Conversions are also known popularly as "migrations" or "data migration". Conversion may involve a lot of manual or programatic corrections and changes to data, in order to make it fit the new system. If the source system will not be retired at the end of the conversion, an interface may be built instead of a conversion. In which case, the all necessary data is loaded at the time of "cutover" using the interface.Conversions can be developed using ABAP programs that use LSMW, CATT scripts (for very little data), BDCs or BAPI calls or function calls, or generates IDocs etc.

Enhancements:

Enhancements are programs and objects that controls, changes or creates data that is generated by the standard SAP system. Enhancements are required wherever the configurations provided by the standards SAP system are not sufficient to realize the requirements of the implementation or the system. These can be validations, extra user inputs, additionally captured data, additonally created data, workflows, additional update to data, alerts etc. In general, refering to the FRICE classification table above, when the program/object affects the update of data, and the source of data in the SAP system where the program/object resides, and the target system is the same as the source system, then the program/object can be classified as an enhancement. Enhancements include the most number and kind of ABAP objects in an implementation or project.

 

1.2 SCOPE:

  • The SAP Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system, SAP R /3, is built as an integrated system where all functionality necessary to run an enterprise is provided by one system.
  • The main benefits of this approach are the workflow and seamless integration of the different business processes within an enterprise. The integration is what ensures the consistency of the business information.
  • The functionality within SAP R /3 is split into modules dedicated to the business functions in an enterprise. The core modules include hundreds of business processes to address the needs of an enterprise.
  • They can be categorized under financials, logistics, and human resources management. Each of these, in turn, consists of multiple sub-modules. For instance, logistics includes general logistics, material management, plant maintenance, and production planning, among others.

 

1.3 THEORETICAL AND TECHNICAL ASPECTS:

The Feasibility Study is used to provide an analysis of the objectives, requirements, and system concepts of the proposed system, including justification, schedule, and end products.  During this analysis, the objectives of the system are defined based on the needed functions described previously.  Included in these system objectives are the high-level functional and performance objectives and any assumptions and constraints.  When the system objectives have been identified, the various alternatives for satisfying those objectives are determined.  For each alternative, the costs in time and resources are estimated.  A determination is then made as to the most feasible development alternative. The feasibility  study concentrates  on  the  following  area.

  • Operational  Feasibility
  • Technical  Feasibility
  • Economic  Feasibility

1.3.1 OPERATIONAL FEASIBILITY:                  

Operational  feasibility  study  tests  the  operational  scope  of  the  software to  be  developed. The proposed software   must have high operational feasibility. The usability will be high.

1.3.2 ECONOMICAL FEASIBILITY:

The  economic  feasibility    study  evaluate  the  cost  of  the software  development  against  the  ultimate  income  or  benefits  gets  from  the developed   system. There  must  be  scopes  for  profit  after  the  successful Completion  of  the  project.

1.3.3 TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY:

The technical   feasibility  study  compares  the  level  of technology   available  in  the  software  development   firm  and  the  level of technology  required  for the  development  of   the  product. Here  the  level   of technology  consists   of  the  programming   language,  the  hardware    resources, Other  software  tools   etc.

 

2. OBJECTIVES

2.1 FUNCTIONAL OBJECTIVES:

The functional objectives of development of FRICE  as an ABAPer are as follows:

  • RICEF represents the development objects that need to be designed and built on a SAP implementation to meet the business requirements
  • Traditionally "Reports" in RICEF used to represent ABAP reports (ALV, Batch, simple output or interactive) but with the addition of BI and Business Objects, SAP customers have been including these transactional and analytical reports also as Reports.
  • It used to represent SAP interface technologies such as ALE, IDOC, etc but now a days SAP systems integrators include external as well as internal SAP and non-SAP system interfaces to avoid confusion for the SAP customer.
  • The output of the project blueprint phase is the SAP Solution Inventory which comprises of the RICEF objects together with configuration items. It is very important to understand each solution gap and properly classify the same as either a report, interface, conversion object, enhancement, form or a workflow.

2.2 PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES:

  • SAP RICEF Lead should be concious of the types of forms that will be implemented on your project.
  • Analyze the types of forms that will be implemented as quickly as possible during the blueprint as you will need to onboard ABAP developers and technical consultants with experience in either SAPscript, Smart Forms, Adobe Forms or MS OI.
  • SAP Project Manager & SAP RICEF Lead need to make sure that you have a well balanced team of ABAP developers working on enhancements. Architects and senior developers must have prior experience with specific modules implemented on the project as it is very important that they have sound expertise about all available user exits, BADIs, DDIC objects, etc that can be enhanced.

 

3. HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS

3.1  Product Perspective:

To speak at macro level that is at project manager or at senior levels.  The Functional Spec (Specification) which is a comprehensive document is created after the (SRD) Software Requirements Document. It provides more details on selected items originally described in the Software Requirements Template. Elsewhere organizations combine these two documents into a single document.

The Functional Specification describes the features of the desired functionality. It describes the product's features as seen by the stake holders, and contains the technical information and the data needed for the design and development. 

The Functional Specification defines what the functionality will be of a particular area that is to be precise a transaction in SAP terminology.

The Functional Specification document to create a detailed design document that explains in detail how the software will be designed and developed. 

The functional specification translates the Software Requirements template into a technical description which :

a) Ensures that the product feature requirements are correctly understood before moving into the next step, that is a technical development process.

b) Clearly and unambiguously provides all the information necessary for the technical consultants to develop the objects.

 3.2  Product Features

In this project I have worked upon all the features of FRICE. Reports have been made, Forms are generated, Interfaces have been developed, Conversions have been done from excel sheet to SAP database, enhancement has been done by adding additional fields.

3.3  User Classes and Characteristics

Its users are the incharge of different departments like sales and distribution ,material management, human resource etc. who have requested for the development of different components.

3.4  Operating Environment

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS

Number

Description

Alternatives (If available)

1

PC with Intel® coreTM  2 duo processor, 512 MB RAM and 1GB hard disk.

Not-Applicable

"Table 3.1: Hardware Requirement"

 

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS

Number

Description

Alternatives (If available)

1

Microsoft Windows XP/Vista

Not Applicable

2

Microsoft Internet Explorer Version 6.0/7.0

Not Applicable

3

 SAP MaxDB 7.6

Not Applicable

"Table 3.2: Software Requirements"

4. PROJECT DESIGN

4.1 SYSTEM DESIGN

The SAP R/3 System has a three-tier client/server architecture. All data is stored in a database, and the data is processed in the application layer on the application servers. The SAPgui frontend (presentation layer) is the interface to the user. All three layers are connected to each other with networks. The following graphic depicts the client/server architecture of the R/3 System, and the communication requirements between the presentation and application layers and between the application and database layers:

"Figure 4.1: SAP R/3System"

 

Depending on your requirements, you can distribute the services to different hosts.

4.1.1Smaller applications keep the database and the R/3 application on the same host. The large volume of data that passes between the R/3 application and the database (SAP server communication) is processed locally and not through a network.

4.1.2The presentation layer is usually made up of PCs on which the SAPgui frontend is installed. The SAPgui is not a terminal emulation but an application program that displays R/3 application data graphically. This means that there are no great demands placed on the connection between the SAPgui frontend PCs and the R/3 application (access communication).

"Figure 4.2: SAP Presentation Layer"

4.1.3Higher processing demands on the R/3 application can be realized by additional application servers (application servers are hosts on which the R/3 application runs). Very high demands are made on bandwidth and delay time between the application servers and the database server. You need to set up a suitable network connection to meet these demand.

"Figure 4.3: SAP Application Servers"

 

4.1.4 You can speed up and secure data throughput to the database by placing the database on a separate host. The database server host then communicates only with the R/3 application servers. By isolating the database completely from the rest of the corporate network, you prevent unauthorized access to sensitive data and ensure high performance. For data backup purposes you may need to connect the database server to a dedicated network (SAN = Storage Area Network).

"Figure 4.4: SAP Database Server"

 

4.2  SUBSYSTEM ARCHITECTURE

An SAP System communicates using server communication and access communication.

There is no standard solution for access communication (client access or access methods using external systems). You must find an appropriate network topology to access the R/3 Server depending on the type and number of clients, and particularly depending on the location of the system.

For server communication topology, you must first determine the location of the SAP server installation (database server and application server). The SAP System consists of one or several servers that are usually responsible for the entire enterprise and are located at a central point, the computer center. This is a centralized concept (as with mainframes) and is an advantage for maintenance and operation. Numerous clients that are widely spread out access these servers.

The concept of a "server farm" is well suited to SAP Systems.

Note the following basic principles:

  • All servers are connected to each other directly with a high bandwidth and minimal delay times. Switches are well suited for this.
  • If the servers are connected using shared media (for example, the Ethernet), there may easily be temporary network overloads, called collisions. Since this lowers performance, we recommend that you use an additional, separate network segment to connect the servers of an SAP System.
  • If you connect the R/3 Server with the campus or backbone network, you need routing functions. You can use routers or modern layer 3 switches (OSI Layer 3 = network layer).
  • By creating redundant network paths, you can protect your system against failure.

If the network topology covers several SAP Systems, the server connections should only include those servers of one system only so that optimal performance is ensured for each SAP System.

 

4.3 DETAILED DESIGN

4.4.3.1 Classification

SAP is an ERP system. ERP stands for Enterprise Resources Planning. ERP term is used for software that controls whole organizations different departments. For example, SAP, Oracle, People soft, JD Edwards are some of the top ERP software systems.

SAP is beautifully and neatly integrated ERP software. SAP is a leader when it comes to easy integration among all the departments. It provides industry specific solutions for different industries other then its basic SAP modules. SAP suit contains

1) SAP FI

2) SAP  CO

3) SAP SD

4) SAP MM

5) SAP PP

6) SAP HR

  • SAP ABAP: - ABAP stands for Advanced Business Application Programming / 4th Generation Language. ABAP is a programming language used for developing applications for the SAP R/3 system. SAP will run applications written using ABAP /4.ABAP/4 cannot run directly on an operating system as it requires a set of programs to load, interpret, and buffer its input and output. Three Tier Architecture of R/3:
  1. Database Server
  2. Application Server
  3. Presentation Server
  • ABAP : FRICE Model :

1.Forms

2.Reports

3.Interfaces

4.Conversions

5.Enhancement

 

4.3.2  Definition

1) SAP FI - SAP FI module as the term suggests deals in managing financial transactions within enterprises. This financial accounting module helps employees to manage data involved in any financial and business transactions in a unified system. This module functions very well for reporting requirements.

2) SAP Controlling - SAP CO module is another important SAP modules offered to enterprises. The controlling module supports in the process works of planning, reporting and monitoring operations of businesses.

3) SAP Sales and Distribution (SD) - SAP SD modules deal in managing all transactions ranging from enquiries, proposals, quotations and pricing and more. The sales and distribution module helps greatly in inventory control and management.

4) SAP Production Planning (PP) - SAP PP module is another important module that includes software designed specifically for production planning and management. This module also consists of master data, system configuration and transactions in order to accomplish plan procedure for production.

5) SAP Materials Management (MM) - SAP MM module as the term suggests manages materials required, processed and produced in enterprises.

6)  SAP Quality Management (QM) -SAP QM module helps in management of quality in productions across processes in an organization.

7) SAP Human Capital Management (HCM)- SAP HCM module enhances the work process and data management within HR department of enterprises.

 

4.3.3 Constraints

General Constraints

To implement FRICE model in SAP ,the authorization is given to very confined set of company members.

  • Access is provided to very limited number of company employees.
  • ABAPer knows all the aspects of FRICE model.
  • ABAPer has no knowledge of the other modules from where the requirement is coming and why it is coming,he is concerned with only the coding part mentioned in function specification document.

4.4 SUBSYSTEM DESIGN

 

"Figure 4.5: Level DFD for ABAP FUNCTION MODULE"

 

 

 

"Figure 4.6: Level DFD for FORMS"

 

 

 

"Figure 4.7: Level DFD for REPORTS"

 

 

 

 

 

"Figure 4.8: Level DFD for CONVERSION"

 

 

 

"Figure 4.9: Level DFD for ENHANCEMENT"

                

 

5. FUTURE WORK

5.1 CURRENT STATUS OF PROJECT

5.1.1 Assumptions and Dependencies

To implement FRICE model in SAP ,the authorization is given to very confined set of company members.

  • Access is provided to very limited number of company employees.
  • ABAPer knows all the aspects of FRICE model.
  • ABAPer has no knowledge of the other modules from where the requirement is coming and why it is coming,he is concerned with only the coding part mentioned in function specification document.

5.1.2 Goals and Guidelines

  • Provides all the services required for managing the business by integrating different departments on SAP platform.
  • Increase the efficiency and productivity of organization and better monitoring.
  • Provide timely & reliable information.
  • Adopt a standards-based approach to enable integration with other related applications

5.1.3 Privacy and security implications:

  • The unauthorized users are not allowed to access the SAP modules and do any kind of modifications.
  • There are some specified number of attempts for accessing accounts after which the accounts get locked and then only network administrator are authorized to unlock account.

5.2 FUTURE WORK REQUIRED

No future work is required. All the best possible features have been implanted and satisfactory goals are achievable.

PROGRESS REPORT 1 PROGRESS REPORT 1

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Till now, I have learned about SAP ERP and theoretical aspects of its various Business functions. I along with my mentor is working on a project named "FRICE" which is based on SAP ERP and is coded in ABAP (Advanced Business Application Programming)

 

ABOUT THE PROJECT "FRICE"

FRICE Stands for :

  • F – Forms: Forms are SAPscript forms, SAPscript print programs, and SmartForms.
  • R – Reports: R refers report programming. Of course, firstly classical report programming, WRITE statement; then it means ALV programming with either ALV function modules or ABAP objects.
  • I – Interfaces: Interfaces are ALE / IDOC developments. Not only development, ABAP programming for IDOCs, also IDOC customization, management. I think it might refers EDI too.
  • C – Conversion: Conversions means BDC programming, batch input function modules, BDCDATA structure, CALL TRANSACTION
  • E – Enhancements: Enhancements are user-exits and the object oriented model of user-exits that is BADIs

 Functional objectives of development of FRICE as an ABAPer are as follows:

  • FRICE represents the development objects that need to be designed and built on a SAP implementation to meet the business requirements
  • Traditionally "Reports" in FRICE used to represent ABAP reports (ALV, Batch, simple output or interactive) but with the addition of BI and Business Objects, SAP customers have been including these transactional and analytical reports also as Reports.
  • It used to represent SAP interface technologies such as ALE, IDOC, etc but now a days SAP systems integrators include external as well as internal SAP and non-SAP system interfaces to avoid confusion for the SAP customer.
  • The output of the project blueprint phase is the SAP Solution Inventory which comprises of the RICEF objects together with configuration items. It is very important to understand each solution gap and properly classify the same as either a report, interface, conversion object, enhancement, form or a workflow.

 

ERP (SAP) SYSTEM:

  • Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) System is an integratedinformation system
  • Designed to coordinate all the resources, information, and activities in an organisation.
  • One database, one application, unified interface across entire company.
  • It covers all business functions, including Production, Maintenance, Procurement, Material & Inventory Management, Finance, Sales, HR etc.
  • E.g. SAP, Oracle eBusiness Suite, IFS, MS Dynamics 

TRAINING SPECIFICATIONS TRAINING SPECIFICATIONS

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INDUSTRIAL TRAINING SPMCIL (Security Printing and  Minting Corporation of India Limited)

  • ORGANIZATION ADDRESS: India Government Mint, D-2, Sector-1, Noida
  • DEPARTMENT: Information Technology
  • PROJECT MANAGERS NAME: Mr. Arun Gulia   
  • PROJECT MANAGERS PHONE NO: 9810258451
  • PROJECT MANAGERS EMAIL ID: arun.gulia@spmcil.com
  • PROJECT NAME: FRICE(Forms Reports Interface Conversion Enhancement)
  • TECHNOLOGY USED: SAP ECC 6 ERP

ABOUT ORGANIZATION:

  • Government of India company
  • Manufacturer of currency notes, stamp papers, coins, medals, passports, postal stamps etc.
  • 10 plants –1 paper mill, 1 ink factory, 4 presses, 4 mints
  • 12,000+ employees